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Within a culture, there are many subcultures possessing unique traits that set them apart from each other. As a funeral service professional, I have been privileged to arrange and direct funeral rites that have been rich in cultural diversity. I, for more than two decades have felt privileged to be part of a society that requires the care and respect of the dead, regardless of the social, economic, religious or ethnic position of the deceased within the community.
Funeral rites of the Caribbean tend to be elaborate, steeped in religious ceremony usually Protestantand grounded by cultural heritage. Despite the declining economy, the last rites are considered the final rite of passage for those whose elders passed down specific customs from the West Indies.
The funeral is a communal affair in which each person has explicit duties to perform.
There can be a period of more than a week from the time of death to the burial, either to transport the deceased back to the West Indies or to accommodate the arrival of family from that location.
The few cremations that are requested by African-Americans of Caribbean descent take place only after the same traditional viewing and funeral service. The lowering of the body and covering of the grave is considered mandatory, which might explain the reason for small numbers of cremations.
African American Funeral Customs African-Americans whose heritage is ingrained in Southern tradition follow many of the practices of Caribbeans. There has been a rise in cremations, however, not as a result of a declining economy but because of the desire of the deceased to have the cremains spread in the land of their birth or with their ancestors.
There has been a marked change in specific funeral rituals in that the order of service includes far more secular as opposed to religious activities.
Many of the services are held in the funeral home rather than in the church, and the music is more contemporary. The wake may also include a video presentation of the life of the deceased with her or his favorite music for example, jazz playing in the background.
The religious items historically placed in the casket have been replaced with the favorite items of the deceased, such as CDs, a microphone of a former disc jockey or a stethoscope around the neck or a former doctor.
The Southern African-American appears to make a statement about the life of the deceased with the items she or he chooses to display in the casket. At times economics underlie cultural decisions regarding the funeral rite.
The last thing I can do for him is give him a fine and proper burial.
In more depressed socioeconomic communities, however, a traditional funeral would deplete the finances of an entire family. They may need a government subsidy or may be forced to choose a direct cremation or burial with an accompanying memorial service.
This decision is very difficult for African-American to make particularly if the deceased held a major position within the family. African migrants to the United States steadfastly hold on to their ancestral rituals in their funeral rites.
Economics is a secondary factor for Africans, because the entire community is required to contribute to the expenses, food, and necessities of the family. The higher the social position of the deceased, the more complex and expensive the funeral rite.
Jun 10, · The connection between play and culture has an illustrious past. In , the classic play theorist Johan Huizinga articulated the position of play as a cultural phenomenon, one that humans share with animals. In this work, he introduced the defining criteria of play and its relationship to other. Despite great cultural differences in last rites, “the funeral represents a near universal response to a universal situation. In the enormous variety of funeral practices, each funeral rite affords the comfort of tradition in its own place,” comment Habenstein and Lamers, Funerals (). While conflict resolution specialists have begun to develop newer approaches in order to prioritize human needs and non adversarial processes (Burton ; Laue ), Western conflict resolution has traditionally reflected a cultural outlook of pragmatic individualism and a style of instrumental problem solving (Scimecca ).
The wake is spread over many days: The role of the funeral director becomes more challenging without having the traditional guidelines of most religious services to follow, because there can be a spontaneous change in the movement and logistics of the funeral rite.
Muslim Funerals In African funerals, the members prefer the services to be directed by men, as is also prevalent in Muslim funeral rites. Muslims and African migrants also prepare the deceased within the funeral home themselves; men prepare males and women prepare females.
The major difference in the funeral rites of the Muslims is the time span allowed form the death to the burial, with the custom of the Muslims requiring twenty-four hours. Funeral rites are based more on ritual rather than economics or social standing within the sect.
Embalming and cremation in both groups are considered taboo. The Muslims also turn the deceased to the East in the casket, arrange the funeral site with the chairs facing East and bury the deceased with the grave facing East to Mecca The Holy Land. Most services are conducted in the mosque. Viewing of the remains is strictly prohibited.
Latin American Funerals In contrast, Latin Americans hold wakes for a minimum of two days for twenty-four hour spanswith an open casket for viewing, a full Catholic funeral Mass and burial in a Catholic cemetery.
Funeral rites are also communal events within the Latin culture. The Latin-American community has also embraced the Pentecostal religion.
One custom that does differ in the Latin American culture, as compared to other cultures, is the use of photography of the deceased during parts of the funeral rite. In more than any other cultural funeral service, children are significantly included in the entire rite.
Reverence for the dead from one generation to another is held in very high esteem.The class was grounded in theories and concepts from the cross-cultural communications field (e.g.
Edward Hall, Geert Hofstede), so students were learning a solid framework they could use to understand and expect cultural differences.
traditional criteria in cyber domain Imbalance of power: How can those cross-cultural differences in cyber-bullying be explained? What are some of the methodological challenges?
Dr Anke Görzig 8 •9 Non-response rates & Survey procedures. Have you acted in . In my topic “Traditional and Non-Traditional Medicine,” I propose to examine similarities and differences between “traditional” and “non-traditional” medicine as well as the potential integration of .
Cross-cultural communication (also frequently referred to as intercultural communication, which is also used in a different sense, though) is a field of study that looks at how people from differing cultural backgrounds communicate, in similar and different ways among themselves, and how they endeavor to communicate across cultures.
Cross-Cultural Differences in Traditional and Non-Traditional Cultures Essay There are usually some shared values among all cultures ; the contrast is the account .
exposure to divergent cultural traditions and differences in the personality of individual members of societies and cultures.
7 See, Robert L. Gegios & Stephen D. R. Taylor, “ Cross-Cultural Understanding: An Essential Skill in International.